Caspian Sea (open water)

URI https://medievalmideast.org/place/2766

The sea between the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia

Names

  • Arabic: أكفوده درياو = Akfūdah daryāw 1
  • Arabic: بحر الخزر = Baḥr al-Khazar 2
  • Arabic: بحر الديلم = Baḥr al-Daylam 3
  • Arabic: زراه أكفوده = Zarāh Akfūdah 4
  • Armenian: Կասբից Ծով = Kasbitsʻ Tsov 5-9
  • Armenian: Կասպից Ծով = Kaspitsʻ Tsov 10
  • Armenian: Կազբից Ծով = Kazbitsʻ Tsov 11
  • Greek: Κασπία, Κασπίαν = Kaspia, Kaspian 12
  • Greek: τὴν θάλασσαν τήνδε Ὑρκανίαν = tēn thalassan tēnde Hyrkanian 13
  • Persian: دریای آبسکون = Daryā-yi Ābiskūn 14
  • Syriac: ܟܣܦܝܐ = KSPYʾ 15
Show table of instances where this place is mentioned
Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī. 1-4 before c. 1225c.1225877 A.H. / 14721995
Event mentioned by an Armenian scribe. 5 1307130713071950
Event mentioned by Abraham. 6 1315131513151950
Event mentioned by Sargis. 7 1325132513251950
Event mentioned by T‘oros. 8 1329132913291950
Event mentioned by Yovanēs. 9 1331133113311950
Event mentioned by an Armenian scribe. 10 1312131213121950
Event mentioned by Yovhannēs. 11 1337133713371950
Event mentioned by Laonikos Chalkokondyles. 12-13 before 14641464-1468mid-late 15th C2014
Events mentioned by Nāṣir-i Khusraw 14 c. 1050circa 106510th C Hijrī/16th C CE2001
Events mentioned by Michael the Syrian 15 before 11991195-1199?15982009

Sources

  • 1Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 342 [Arabic].
  • 2Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 153، 303، 342 (3) 292 [Arabic].
  • 3Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 180 [Arabic].
  • 4Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 342 [Arabic].
  • 5L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 65 p. 51 [Armenian].
    • Kasbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1307 (no. 5) [English].
  • 6L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 150 p. 113 [Armenian].
    • Kasbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1315 (no. 1) [English].
  • 7L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 239 p. 192 [Armenian].
    • Kasbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1325 (no. 1) [English].
  • 8L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 272 pp. 215-216 [Armenian].
    • Kasbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1329 (no. 1) [English].
  • 9L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 292 p. 234 [Armenian].
    • Kasbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1331 (no. 2) [English].
  • 10L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 114 p. 84 [Armenian].
    • Kaspic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1312 (no. 1) [English].
  • 11L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 364 p. 296 [Armenian].
    • Kazbic‘ Cov: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1337 (no. 3) [English].
  • 12Caspian Sea: Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, ed. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014), para. 3.10-11, 29 [Greek with English translation].
  • 13Hyrkanian Sea: Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, ed. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014), para. 3.10 [Greek with English translation].
  • 14Caspian Sea: Nāṣir-i Khusraw, Nasir-i Khusraw's Book of Travels, ed. Wheeler M. Thackston (Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda, 2001), 5 [Persian with English translation].
  • 15Gregorios Yuhanna Ibrahim, ed., The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the Great (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009), 74 [Syriac].
    • Caspien (lac): J.-B. Chabot, trans., Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1901), I, 112, 119; II, 522 [French].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, et al., “Caspian Sea” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021, https://medievalmideast.org/place/2766.

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; place categorization; abstract; matching and transliteration from Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī’s Muʿjam al-Buldān; categorization, matching, Armenian collection/transliteration from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts; categorization, matching, Greek collection and transliteration from Chalkokondyles' history; matching from Nāṣir-i Khusraw's travelogue; and categorization, matching, Syriac collection and transliteration from Michael's chronicle
  • McKenzie Cady: citation generation from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts and categorization from Michael's chronicle
  • Josh Kuch: categorization and Greek collection from Chalkokondyles' history
  • Mary Papadopoulos: categorization, matching, Persian collection and transliteration from Nāṣir-i Khusraw's travelogue
  • Jessica Mutter: categorization, matching from Michael's chronicle
Show additional credits