Tigris (river)

URI https://medievalmideast.org/place/961

A place

Names

  • Arabic: دجلة = Dijla 1, 5, 7
  • Arabic: الزوراء = al-Zawrāʾ 2
  • Arabic: آرنك روذ = Ārank Rūdh 3
  • Arabic: كودك دريا = Kūdak Daryā 4
  • Arabic: زوراء العراق = Zawrāʾ al-ʿIrāq 6
  • Armenian: [Դ]կլատ = [D]klat 8
  • Hebrew: חדקל = ḤDQL 9-10
  • Latin: Tigris 11-12
  • Persian: دجله = Dijla 13
  • Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ = DQLT 14
Show table of instances where this place is mentioned
Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī. 1-4 before c. 1225c.1225877 A.H. / 14721995
Event mentioned by Nuʿaym b. Ḥammād. 5 before 843 CEc. 820-843 CE687 A.H. / 1288-9 CE1993
Event mentioned by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa. 6-7 before 1354 CE1354-1356early 1180 A.H. / 17661997
Event mentioned by Ṛstakēs. 8 1397139713971950
Events mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela 9-10 before c.1170c.117313th C1907
Events mentioned by Burchard of Mount Sion 11 c.1280c.128414th C1864
Events mentioned by Riccoldo da Montecroce 12 c. 1289c.129014th C1864
Events mentioned by Nāṣir-i Khusraw 13 c. 1050circa 106510th C Hijrī/16th C CE2001
Events mentioned by Michael the Syrian 14 before 11991195-1199?15982009

Sources

  • 1Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 318، 385، 534 (2) 440، 508، 515 (3) 138، 155، 157 (4) 167 [Arabic].
  • 2Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 465، 466 (3) 155 [Arabic].
  • 3Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (2) 440 [Arabic].
  • 4Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (2) 440 [Arabic].
  • 5Nuʿaym b. Ḥammād, Kitāb al-Fitan, edited by Suhayl Zakkār (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1993), 128, 184, 362, 363, 412, 413 [Arabic].
    • Tigris River: Nuʿaym b. Ḥammād, The Book of Tribulations: The Syrian Muslim Apocalyptic Tradition, translated by David Cook (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017), 115, 171, 216, 371–2, 419–20 [English].
  • 6Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: al-musammāt Tuḥfat al-niẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār, edited by ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī (al-Ribāṭ: Akādīmiyyat al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya, 1417 H [1996-97]), 1:302 [Arabic].
    • ʿIrāq's skewed river: H. A. R. Gibb, C. F. Beckingham, and A. D. H. Bivar, trans., The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325-1354 (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000), I, 121 [English].
  • 7Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: al-musammāt Tuḥfat al-niẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār, edited by ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī (al-Ribāṭ: Akādīmiyyat al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya, 1417 H [1996-97]), 1:208; 2:61 [Arabic].
    • Tigris: H. A. R. Gibb, C. F. Beckingham, and A. D. H. Bivar, trans., The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325-1354 (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000), I, 50; II, 326 [English].
  • 8L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XIV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1950), no. 772 p. 618 [Armenian].
    • [D]klat: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1397 (no. 1) [English].
  • 9Hiddekel: Marcus N. Adler, ed., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (London: Frowde, 1907), 52-54 [Hebrew with English translation].
  • 10Tigris: Marcus N. Adler, ed., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (London: Frowde, 1907), 58, 64, 73, 74, 88 [Hebrew with English translation].
  • 11Tigris: Burchard of Mount Sion, Descriptio Terrae Sanctae, in J. C. M. Laurent, ed., Peregrinatores Medii Aevi Quatuor (Leipzig: C. P. Melzeri, 1864), I 2 bis, VIII 4. [Latin].
  • 12Tigris: Riccoldo da Montecroce, Liber Peregrinationis, in J. C. M. Laurent, ed., Peregrinatores Medii Aevi Quatuor (Leipzig: C. P. Melzeri, 1864), XVI - XVIII. [Latin].
  • 13Tigris: Nāṣir-i Khusraw, Nasir-i Khusraw's Book of Travels, ed. Wheeler M. Thackston (Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda, 2001), 115, 119-20 [Persian with English translation].
  • 14Gregorios Yuhanna Ibrahim, ed., The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the Great (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009), 8 [Syriac].
    • Tigre: J.-B. Chabot, trans., Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1901), I, 15, 102, 281; II, 159, 421, 423, 480, 522; III, 84, 86, 88, 106 [French].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, et al., “Tigris” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021, https://medievalmideast.org/place/961.

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; matching and transliteration from Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī’s Muʿjam al-Buldān; categorization, matching, Arabic collection and transliteration from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's travel account; categorization, matching, Armenian collection/transliteration from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts; Hebrew transliteration from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue; matching from Laurent's Peregrinatores medii aevi quattuor; matching from Nāṣir-i Khusraw's travelogue; and categorization, matching, Syriac collection and transliteration from Michael's chronicle
  • Evan Willford: place categorization and matching from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's travel account
  • Jessica Mutter: categorization, matching, and Arabic name collection and transcription from Nuʿaym Ibn Ḥammād’s Kitāb al-Fitan and categorization, matching from Michael's chronicle
  • McKenzie Cady: citation generation from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts and categorization from Michael's chronicle
  • Liran Yadgar: categorization, matching, Hebrew collection from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue
  • Margaret Gaida: categorization from Laurent's Peregrinatores medii aevi quattuor
  • Mary Papadopoulos: categorization, matching, Persian collection and transliteration from Nāṣir-i Khusraw's travelogue
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