kharāj

URI https://medievalmideast.org/practice/107

Land tax

Names

  • Arabic: خراج = kharāj 1
  • Armenian: խարաճ = kharach 2-3
Show table of instances where this practice is mentioned
Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa.1 before 1354 CE1354-1356early 1180 A.H. / 17661997
Event mentioned by Step‘anos.2 1464146414641958
Event mentioned by Step‘anos.3 1476147614761958

Sources

  • 1Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: al-musammāt Tuḥfat al-niẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār, edited by ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī (al-Ribāṭ: Akādīmiyyat al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya, 1417 H [1996-97]), 1:208 [Arabic].
    • land-tax: H. A. R. Gibb, C. F. Beckingham, and A. D. H. Bivar, trans., The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325-1354 (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000), I, 49 [English].
  • 2L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1958), no. 256a II: p. 211 [Armenian].
    • xarač: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1464 (no. 1) [English].
  • 3L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1958), no. 496 II: pp. 393-396 [Armenian].
    • xarač: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1476 (no. 2) [English].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson and McKenzie Cady, “kharāj” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021, https://medievalmideast.org/practice/107.

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; abstract; categorization, matching, Arabic collection and transliteration from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's travel account; and matching, Armenian collection/transliteration from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts
  • McKenzie Cady: citation generation from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts
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