A practice


  • Greek: ἀνδραπόδων = andrapodōn 1
  • Hebrew: עבדים = ʿBDYM 2
  • Syriac: ܥܒ̈ܕܐ = ʿBDʾ 3

Temporal Data

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Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Laonikos Chalkokondyles.1 before 14641464-1468mid-late 15th C2014
Events mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela2 before c.1170c.117313th C1907
Events mentioned by Michael the Syrian3 before 11991195-1199?15982009


  • 1slaves: Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, ed. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014), para. 3.16, 18 [Greek with English translation].
  • 2Slaves: Marcus N. Adler, ed., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (London: Frowde, 1907), 97 [Hebrew with English translation].
  • 3Gregorios Yuhanna Ibrahim, ed., The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the Great (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009), 87 [Syriac].
    • esclaves: J.-B. Chabot, trans., Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1901), I, 131, 133 [French].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, et al., “slavery” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021,

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; categorization, matching, Greek collection and transliteration from Chalkokondyles' history; matching, Hebrew transliteration from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue; and matching, Syriac name collection and transliteration from Michael's chronicle
  • Josh Kuch: categorization from Chalkokondyles' history
  • Liran Yadgar: Hebrew collection from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue
  • Jessica Mutter: matching from Michael's chronicle
  • McKenzie Cady: categorization from Michael's chronicle
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