Title for a pope, formerly used for all bishops, and still used by the Coptic patriarchs of Alexandria as well as the bishops of Rome


  • Arabic: البابا = al-Bābā 1
  • Armenian: պապ = pap 2
  • Syriac: ܦܦܐ = PPʾ 3
Show table of instances where this practice is mentioned
Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī.1 before c. 1225c.1225877 A.H. / 14721995
Event mentioned by Dawit‘ Episkopos.2 1453145314531958
Events mentioned by Michael the Syrian3 before 11991195-1199?15982009


  • 1Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī, Muʿjam al-buldān (Beirut: Dār Ṣādr, 1995), (1) 323 [Arabic].
  • 2L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1958), no. 38 II: pp. 30-31 [Armenian].
    • pap: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1453 (no. 1) [English].
  • 3Gregorios Yuhanna Ibrahim, ed., The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the Great (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009), 277 [Syriac].
    • pape: J.-B. Chabot, trans., Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1901), II, 185 [French].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, McKenzie Cady, and Jessica Mutter, “papa” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021,

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; abstract; matching and transliteration from Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī’s Muʿjam al-Buldān; matching, Armenian collection/transliteration from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts; and matching, Syriac name collection and transliteration from Michael's chronicle
  • McKenzie Cady: citation generation from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts and categorization from Michael's chronicle
  • Jessica Mutter: matching from Michael's chronicle
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