The language


  • Greek: Ἀραβικῇ = Arabikē 1
  • Hebrew: לשון ערב = LShWN ʿRB 2

Temporal Data

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Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Laonikos Chalkokondyles.1 before 14641464-1468mid-late 15th C2014
Events mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela2 before c.1170c.117313th C1907


  • 1Arabic: Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, ed. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014), para. 2.33 [Greek with English translation].
  • 2Arabic: Marcus N. Adler, ed., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (London: Frowde, 1907), 75, 104 [Hebrew with English translation].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, Josh Kuch, and Liran Yadgar, “Arabic” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021,

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; abstract; categorization, matching, Greek transliteration from Chalkokondyles' history; and matching, Hebrew transliteration from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue
  • Josh Kuch: categorization and Greek collection from Chalkokondyles' history
  • Liran Yadgar: Hebrew collection from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue
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