Ramaḍān

URI https://medievalmideast.org/practice/82

The month of fasting in the Islamic calendar

Names

  • Arabic: رمضان = Ramaḍān 1
  • Armenian: Ռամադան = Ṛamadan 2
  • Greek: νηστείαν = nēsteian 3
  • Hebrew: רמצאן = RMṢʾN 4
  • Syriac: ܨܘܡܐ = ṢWMʾ 5
Show table of instances where this practice is mentioned
Event DescriptionDate
Event mentioned by Ibn Baṭṭūṭa.1 before 1354 CE1354-1356early 1180 A.H. / 17661997
Event mentioned by Movsēs Artskets‘i.2 1472147214721958
Event mentioned by Laonikos Chalkokondyles.3 before 14641464-1468mid-late 15th C2014
Events mentioned by Benjamin of Tudela4 before c.1170c.117313th C1907
Events mentioned by Michael the Syrian5 before 11991195-1199?15982009

Sources

  • 1Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭṭūṭa: al-musammāt Tuḥfat al-niẓār fī gharāʾib al-amṣār wa-ʿajāʾib al-asfār, edited by ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī (al-Ribāṭ: Akādīmiyyat al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya, 1417 H [1996-97]), 1:228, 331-332, 402-404 [Arabic].
    • Ramaḍān: H. A. R. Gibb, C. F. Beckingham, and A. D. H. Bivar, trans., The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, A.D. 1325-1354 (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000), I, 67, 150, 238-41 [English].
  • 2L. S. Khach‘ikyan, ed., XV Dari Hayeren Dzeṛagreri Hishatakaranner (Yerevan: Haykakan S. S. Ṛ. Gitut‘yunneri Akademiayi Hratarakch‘ut‘yun, 1958), no. 424b II: pp. 333-337 [Armenian].
    • Ṙamadan: Avedis K. Sanjian, Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts, 1301-1480: A Source for Middle Eastern History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969), 1472 (no. 1) [English].
  • 3fast: Laonikos Chalkokondyles, The Histories, ed. Anthony Kaldellis (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014), para. 3.17 [Greek with English translation].
  • 4Ramazan: Marcus N. Adler, ed., The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela (London: Frowde, 1907), 57 [Hebrew with English translation].
  • 5Gregorios Yuhanna Ibrahim, ed., The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the Great (Piscataway, N.J.: Gorgias Press, 2009), 410 [Syriac].
    • jeûne: J.-B. Chabot, trans., Chronique de Michel le Syrien (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1901), II, 405 [French].

How to Cite This Entry

Thomas A. Carlson, et al., “Ramaḍān” in Thomas A. Carlson, ed. Historical Index of the Medieval Middle East, last modified September 16, 2021, https://medievalmideast.org/practice/82.

Additional credit information:

  • Thomas A. Carlson: Data merging and XML; abstract; Wikipedia matching; categorization, matching, Arabic collection and transliteration from Ibn Baṭṭūṭa's travel account; matching, Armenian collection/transliteration from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts; categorization, matching, Greek collection and transliteration from Chalkokondyles' history; matching, Hebrew transliteration from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue; and matching, Syriac name collection and transliteration from Michael's chronicle
  • McKenzie Cady: citation generation from Sanjian's Colophons of Armenian Manuscripts
  • Josh Kuch: categorization from Chalkokondyles' history
  • Liran Yadgar: Hebrew collection from Benjamin of Tudela's travelogue
  • Jessica Mutter: matching from Michael's chronicle
Show additional credits