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Makhdūm-zāda: A term of respect
al-malāḥida: An Arabic word for apostates or heretics
mālam: "reception room in the Maldives"
māl: A payment to the government for the ability to cultivate the soil
Malik ʿArḍ: An office in charge of reviewing the troops
Mālikī madhhab: A practice
Malik Nāʾib: chief of the amirs in the Delhi Sultanate
Malik al-Umarāʾ: A practice
Mamluks: slave soldiers
manāra: A minaret
Mānāyak: "Maldivian naval commander"
mango: A practice
mangonels: A practice
manors: A practice
mansā: A practice
maphryono: The title of the second highest-ranking leader in the Syriac Orthodox church, based in Iraq
maqdisī: A pilgrim who had visited Jerusalem
maqṣūra: An enclosed portion of a mosque.
marātib: "(ceremonial) honours"
Maravedi: an Iberian coin
Mārdīnī dirham: a type of coin named after Mārdīn
Mareri: Tenth month of the Armenian calendar
Market-places: A practice
marriage contract: A practice
marriage: A practice
marṭabāns: "glazed vessels"
marwārī banana: a type of banana (pearly)
marzipan: A practice
māsh: "a kind of pea (Phaseolus radiatus)"
Maṣmughān: a Sasanian title
Mastic: A practice
masts: A practice
maṭālibīs: treasure-hunters in Egypt's graves
matrilineal succession: A practice
maunds: A unit of weight used in India
Mawālī: clients of Arab tribes and/or converts to Islam
Mawlānā Aʿẓam: An Arabic honorific title
mawlānā: A Muslim learned religious leader, a mullah
mawlid al-nabī: A celebration of the birthday of Muhammad
maẓālim courts: A practice
mead: A practice
Mecca, Beast of the apocalypse appears in: The Beast of the apocalypse will first emerge in Yemen, then in Mecca, where he will frighten the people but not harm them
Mecca, fighting with Medina: Mecca and Medina will fight the army of the Sufyani in an early Islamic conception of the apocalypse
Mecca, moon splits in two at: Considered a prophetic miracle; Muḥammad is present when this occurs
Meccan sand: A special type of sand, found around Ramla.
Medina, appearance of the Mahdi in: In an early Islamic conception of the apocalypse, the Mahdi emerges in Mecca, goes to Medina, then slips away back to Mecca once people start looking for him
Medina as Refuge from the Dajjāl: A practice
Medina, people taken from: According to Mu'ath b. Jabal, during the apocalypse, people will gather to Medina, which will be full of food and livestock but empty of people, and will then be dragged out of Medina to Syria.
Megas Domesticus: A title of one of the ministers in Constantinople
Megas Ducas: A title of one of the ministers in Constantinople
Mehekan: Seventh month of the Armenian calendar
Melik amirs: A high rank among the Mamlūks
melons: A practice
men-at-arms: "(on shipboard)"
mercenaries: A practice
Merchants: A practice
merit earned by pilgrims: A practice
Messianic age: The age in which a messiah figure returns to earth to usher in the apocalpyse
meteorite: A practice
meteors: A practice
metropolitan: A Christian bishop of an important diocese who is directly responsible to the patriarch
Michael: Archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Middlemen: i.e. in the context of trade
mid-Shaʿbān night: A practice
miḥrāb: A practice
Milcom: god of the Ammonites
milestones: A practice
military supplies: Cf. Arabic dhakhīra, treasure, supplies; provisions, food; (military) ammunition (see Wehr, p. 308).
millennial celebration: at Rome
millet gruel: A practice
millet: A practice
Mills: A practice
minbar: A practice
Minerva: A practice
mining: A practice
Minotaur: a human with a bull head, thought to be the son of Minos in Greek mythology
mīqāt: a stopping-point where Muslims performing Ḥajj are required to put on the pilgrim garb
miracles: A practice
mīrā: "fine flour"
al-Miʿrāj: of Muḥammad from Jerusalem
mirʿiz: "(fine woollen cloth)"
mithqāl: "unit of weight"
Mobeds: A practice
modios: A unit of measure
mohwa: an Indian fruit, Bassa laifolia
Moloch: Ancient Near Eastern god
monastery: A place where multiple monks or nuns live together